1_Basic Concepts of Fluid Mechanics


Matter: Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.
Courtesy: creationwiki.org
Physical Significance:

Solid: The molecules of the substances are tightly bound to each other as the molecules has a fixed position in space. A solid exhibits rigidity and possess a distinct shape. The intermolecular distances in a solid are the least, while the intermolecular forces of attraction are the strongest.

Liquid: The forces of attraction between the molecules of liquid are less than that of solid & greater than that in a gas. A substance in liquid state does not have a defined shape rather its shape is defined by that of the container.

Gases: Gas Molecules are in a state of random motion. They exhibit the least intermolecular force of attraction and hence gases lack a definite shape. The intermolecular distances are very large due to which the particles of gases are widely separated from each other. The density and viscosity of gas is less as compared to solid and liquid. Gas Molecules are highly vulnerable to changes in temperature and pressure.

Fluid: A fluid is a substance which is capable of flowing under the action of shear force. (However small the force may be).
e.g : Liquid, Gases , Vapour.

For a static fluid shear force is zero.
Solids regain the original shape, If the shear force within elastic limit when the force is removed. But fluid never regains original shape after the removal of the force.

Cohesive Force: Attraction between two similar molecules is known as cohesive force.

Adhesive Force: Attraction between two dissimilar molecules is known as adhesive force.

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